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  1 # <pre>
  2 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  3 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  4
  5 # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  6 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  7 # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
  8
  9 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  10 #
  11 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
  12 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  13 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  14 #
  15 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
  16 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
  17 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  18 # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
  19 # of the IATA's data after 1990.
  20 #
  21 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
  22 # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
  23 #
  24 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  25 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
  26 # I found in the UCLA library.
  27 #
  28 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  29 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  30 #
  31 # Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
  32 # for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively,
  33 # but Mark R V Murray reports that
  34 # `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
  35 # `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
  36 # `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
  37 # the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''.
  38 # He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference.
  39 #
  40 # To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
  41 # I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00,
  42 # and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00.
  43 # This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African
  44 # mainland seems to have been 1976 in Western Sahara.
  45 #
  46 # To summarize, the following abbreviations seem to have some currency:
  47 # -1:00 WAT West Africa Time (no longer used)
  48 # 0:00 GMT Greenwich Mean Time
  49 # 2:00 CAT Central Africa Time
  50 # 2:00 SAST South Africa Standard Time
  51 # and Murray suggests the following abbreviation:
  52 # 1:00 WAT West Africa Time
  53 # I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
  54 # for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of
  55 # until we get more information.
  56 #
  57 # I invented the following abbreviations; corrections are welcome!
  58 # 2:00 WAST West Africa Summer Time
  59 # 2:30 BEAT British East Africa Time (no longer used)
  60 # 2:45 BEAUT British East Africa Unified Time (no longer used)
  61 # 3:00 CAST Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
  62 # 3:00 SAST South Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
  63 # 3:00 EAT East Africa Time
  64 # 4:00 EAST East Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
  65
  66 # Algeria
  67 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  68 Rule Algeria 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
  69 Rule Algeria 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
  70 Rule Algeria 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S
  71 Rule Algeria 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S
  72 Rule Algeria 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
  73 Rule Algeria 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
  74 Rule Algeria 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
  75 Rule Algeria 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
  76 Rule Algeria 1921 only - Jun 21 23:00s 0 -
  77 Rule Algeria 1939 only - Sep 11 23:00s 1:00 S
  78 Rule Algeria 1939 only - Nov 19 1:00 0 -
  79 Rule Algeria 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00 1:00 S
  80 Rule Algeria 1944 only - Oct 8 2:00 0 -
  81 Rule Algeria 1945 only - Sep 16 1:00 0 -
  82 Rule Algeria 1971 only - Apr 25 23:00s 1:00 S
  83 Rule Algeria 1971 only - Sep 26 23:00s 0 -
  84 Rule Algeria 1977 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S
  85 Rule Algeria 1977 only - Oct 21 0:00 0 -
  86 Rule Algeria 1978 only - Mar 24 1:00 1:00 S
  87 Rule Algeria 1978 only - Sep 22 3:00 0 -
  88 Rule Algeria 1980 only - Apr 25 0:00 1:00 S
  89 Rule Algeria 1980 only - Oct 31 2:00 0 -
  90 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
  91 # more precise 0:09:21.
  92 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  93 Zone Africa/Algiers 0:12:12 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
  94 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
  95 0:00 Algeria WE%sT 1940 Feb 25 2:00
  96 1:00 Algeria CE%sT 1946 Oct 7
  97 0:00 - WET 1956 Jan 29
  98 1:00 - CET 1963 Apr 14
  99 0:00 Algeria WE%sT 1977 Oct 21
  100 1:00 Algeria CE%sT 1979 Oct 26
  101 0:00 Algeria WE%sT 1981 May
  102 1:00 - CET
  103
  104 # Angola
  105 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  106 Zone Africa/Luanda 0:52:56 - LMT 1892
  107 0:52:04 - AOT 1911 May 26 # Angola Time
  108 1:00 - WAT
  109
  110 # Benin
  111 # Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934;
  112 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
  113 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  114 Zone Africa/Porto-Novo 0:10:28 - LMT 1912
  115 0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26
  116 1:00 - WAT
  117
  118 # Botswana
  119 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  120 Zone Africa/Gaborone 1:43:40 - LMT 1885
  121 2:00 - CAT 1943 Sep 19 2:00
  122 2:00 1:00 CAST 1944 Mar 19 2:00
  123 2:00 - CAT
  124
  125 # Burkina Faso
  126 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  127 Zone Africa/Ouagadougou -0:06:04 - LMT 1912
  128 0:00 - GMT
  129
  130 # Burundi
  131 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  132 Zone Africa/Bujumbura 1:57:28 - LMT 1890
  133 2:00 - CAT
  134
  135 # Cameroon
  136 # Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
  137 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  138 Zone Africa/Douala 0:38:48 - LMT 1912
  139 1:00 - WAT
  140
  141 # Cape Verde
  142 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  143 Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 - LMT 1907 # Praia
  144 -2:00 - CVT 1942 Sep
  145 -2:00 1:00 CVST 1945 Oct 15
  146 -2:00 - CVT 1975 Nov 25 2:00
  147 -1:00 - CVT
  148
  149 # Central African Republic
  150 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  151 Zone Africa/Bangui 1:14:20 - LMT 1912
  152 1:00 - WAT
  153
  154 # Chad
  155 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  156 Zone Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 - LMT 1912
  157 1:00 - WAT 1979 Oct 14
  158 1:00 1:00 WAST 1980 Mar 8
  159 1:00 - WAT
  160
  161 # Comoros
  162 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  163 Zone Indian/Comoro 2:53:04 - LMT 1911 Jul # Moroni, Gran Comoro
  164 3:00 - EAT
  165
  166 # Democratic Republic of Congo
  167 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  168 Zone Africa/Kinshasa 1:01:12 - LMT 1897 Nov 9
  169 1:00 - WAT
  170 Zone Africa/Lubumbashi 1:49:52 - LMT 1897 Nov 9
  171 2:00 - CAT
  172
  173 # Republic of the Congo
  174 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  175 Zone Africa/Brazzaville 1:01:08 - LMT 1912
  176 1:00 - WAT
  177
  178 # Cote D'Ivoire
  179 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  180 Zone Africa/Abidjan -0:16:08 - LMT 1912
  181 0:00 - GMT
  182
  183 # Djibouti
  184 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  185 Zone Africa/Djibouti 2:52:36 - LMT 1911 Jul
  186 3:00 - EAT
  187
  188 ###############################################################################
  189
  190 # Egypt
  191
  192 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  193 Rule Egypt 1940 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S
  194 Rule Egypt 1940 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
  195 Rule Egypt 1941 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 S
  196 Rule Egypt 1941 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 -
  197 Rule Egypt 1942 1944 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
  198 Rule Egypt 1942 only - Oct 27 0:00 0 -
  199 Rule Egypt 1943 1945 - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
  200 Rule Egypt 1945 only - Apr 16 0:00 1:00 S
  201 Rule Egypt 1957 only - May 10 0:00 1:00 S
  202 Rule Egypt 1957 1958 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
  203 Rule Egypt 1958 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
  204 Rule Egypt 1959 1981 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
  205 Rule Egypt 1959 1965 - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
  206 Rule Egypt 1966 1994 - Oct 1 3:00 0 -
  207 Rule Egypt 1982 only - Jul 25 1:00 1:00 S
  208 Rule Egypt 1983 only - Jul 12 1:00 1:00 S
  209 Rule Egypt 1984 1988 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
  210 Rule Egypt 1989 only - May 6 1:00 1:00 S
  211 Rule Egypt 1990 1994 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
  212 # IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.
  213 # Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29.
  214
  215 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-04-20):
  216 # "...Egypt's interim cabinet decided on Wednesday to cancel daylight
  217 # saving time after a poll posted on its website showed the majority of
  218 # Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
  219 #
  220 # Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
  221 # <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168">
  222 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
  223 # </a>
  224 # or
  225 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html">
  226 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
  227 # </a>
  228 Rule Egypt 1995 2010 - Apr lastFri 0:00s 1:00 S
  229 Rule Egypt 1995 2005 - Sep lastThu 23:00s 0 -
  230 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
  231 # The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
  232 # Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
  233 # after observing the daylight saving time since May.
  234 # http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
  235 Rule Egypt 2006 only - Sep 21 23:00s 0 -
  236 # From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
  237 # I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
  238 # saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
  239 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
  240 # http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm
  241 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
  242 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
  243 # http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm
  244 Rule Egypt 2007 only - Sep Thu>=1 23:00s 0 -
  245 # From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):
  246 # Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter
  247 # than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each
  248 # year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite
  249 # hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by
  250 # shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently,
  251 # unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008.
  252 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
  253 # For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August.
  254
  255 # From Petr Machata (2009-04-06):
  256 # The following appeared in Red Hat bugzilla[1] (edited):
  257 #
  258 # > $ zdump -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo | grep 2009
  259 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo Thu Apr 23 21:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
  260 # Apr 23
  261 # > 23:59:59 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
  262 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo Thu Apr 23 22:00:00 2009 UTC = Fri =
  263 # Apr 24
  264 # > 01:00:00 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
  265 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo Thu Aug 27 20:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
  266 # Aug 27
  267 # > 23:59:59 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
  268 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo Thu Aug 27 21:00:00 2009 UTC = Thu =
  269 # Aug 27
  270 # > 23:00:00 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
  271 #
  272 # > end date should be Thu Sep 24 2009 (Last Thursday in September at 23:59=
  273 # :59)
  274 # > http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958729/
  275 #
  276 # timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
  277 #
  278 # [1] <a href="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263">
  279 # https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
  280 # </a>
  281 # [2] <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53">
  282 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
  283 # </a>
  284 # [3] <a href="http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/">
  285 # http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
  286 # </a>
  287
  288 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
  289 # In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
  290 # Thursday in September; Egypt is expected to revert to the last Thursday
  291 # in September.
  292
  293 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
  294 # We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet
  295 # Information and Decision Support Center:
  296 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html">
  297 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
  298 # </a>
  299 #
  300 # The Middle East News Agency
  301 # <a href="http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx">
  302 # http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
  303 # </a>
  304 # also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
  305 # today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."
  306 # Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
  307 # and can be found by searching for "winter" in their search engine
  308 # (at least today).
  309
  310 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
  311 # According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
  312 # decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
  313 # Ramadan.
  314 #
  315 # Arabic translation:
  316 # "Clocks to go back during Ramadan--and then forward again"
  317 # <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again">
  318 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
  319 # </a>
  320 # or
  321 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html">
  322 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
  323 # </a>
  324
  325 Rule Egypt 2008 only - Aug lastThu 23:00s 0 -
  326 Rule Egypt 2009 only - Aug 20 23:00s 0 -
  327 Rule Egypt 2010 only - Aug 11 0:00 0 -
  328 Rule Egypt 2010 only - Sep 10 0:00 1:00 S
  329 Rule Egypt 2010 only - Sep lastThu 23:00s 0 -
  330
  331 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  332 Zone Africa/Cairo 2:05:00 - LMT 1900 Oct
  333 2:00 Egypt EE%sT
  334
  335 # Equatorial Guinea
  336 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  337 Zone Africa/Malabo 0:35:08 - LMT 1912
  338 0:00 - GMT 1963 Dec 15
  339 1:00 - WAT
  340
  341 # Eritrea
  342 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  343 Zone Africa/Asmara 2:35:32 - LMT 1870
  344 2:35:32 - AMT 1890 # Asmara Mean Time
  345 2:35:20 - ADMT 1936 May 5 # Adis Dera MT
  346 3:00 - EAT
  347
  348 # Ethiopia
  349 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  350 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones
  351 # between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890.
  352 # We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera.
  353 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  354 Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa 2:34:48 - LMT 1870
  355 2:35:20 - ADMT 1936 May 5 # Adis Dera MT
  356 3:00 - EAT
  357
  358 # Gabon
  359 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  360 Zone Africa/Libreville 0:37:48 - LMT 1912
  361 1:00 - WAT
  362
  363 # Gambia
  364 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  365 Zone Africa/Banjul -1:06:36 - LMT 1912
  366 -1:06:36 - BMT 1935 # Banjul Mean Time
  367 -1:00 - WAT 1964
  368 0:00 - GMT
  369
  370 # Ghana
  371 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  372 # Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present'';
  373 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
  374 Rule Ghana 1936 1942 - Sep 1 0:00 0:20 GHST
  375 Rule Ghana 1936 1942 - Dec 31 0:00 0 GMT
  376 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  377 Zone Africa/Accra -0:00:52 - LMT 1918
  378 0:00 Ghana %s
  379
  380 # Guinea
  381 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  382 Zone Africa/Conakry -0:54:52 - LMT 1912
  383 0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26
  384 -1:00 - WAT 1960
  385 0:00 - GMT
  386
  387 # Guinea-Bissau
  388 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  389 Zone Africa/Bissau -1:02:20 - LMT 1911 May 26
  390 -1:00 - WAT 1975
  391 0:00 - GMT
  392
  393 # Kenya
  394 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  395 Zone Africa/Nairobi 2:27:16 - LMT 1928 Jul
  396 3:00 - EAT 1930
  397 2:30 - BEAT 1940
  398 2:45 - BEAUT 1960
  399 3:00 - EAT
  400
  401 # Lesotho
  402 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  403 Zone Africa/Maseru 1:50:00 - LMT 1903 Mar
  404 2:00 - SAST 1943 Sep 19 2:00
  405 2:00 1:00 SAST 1944 Mar 19 2:00
  406 2:00 - SAST
  407
  408 # Liberia
  409 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  410 # In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch
  411 # from a UTC offset that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.
  412 # Howse reports that it was in honor of their president's birthday.
  413 # Shank & Pottenger report the date as May 1, whereas Howse reports Jan;
  414 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
  415 # For Liberia before 1972, Shanks & Pottenger report -0:44, whereas Howse and
  416 # Whitman each report -0:44:30; go with the more precise figure.
  417 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  418 Zone Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 - LMT 1882
  419 -0:43:08 - MMT 1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
  420 -0:44:30 - LRT 1972 May # Liberia Time
  421 0:00 - GMT
  422
  423 ###############################################################################
  424
  425 # Libya
  426
  427 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  428 Rule Libya 1951 only - Oct 14 2:00 1:00 S
  429 Rule Libya 1952 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
  430 Rule Libya 1953 only - Oct 9 2:00 1:00 S
  431 Rule Libya 1954 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
  432 Rule Libya 1955 only - Sep 30 0:00 1:00 S
  433 Rule Libya 1956 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
  434 Rule Libya 1982 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
  435 Rule Libya 1982 1985 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
  436 Rule Libya 1985 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S
  437 Rule Libya 1986 only - Apr 4 0:00 1:00 S
  438 Rule Libya 1986 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
  439 Rule Libya 1987 1989 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
  440 Rule Libya 1987 1989 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
  441 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  442 Zone Africa/Tripoli 0:52:44 - LMT 1920
  443 1:00 Libya CE%sT 1959
  444 2:00 - EET 1982
  445 1:00 Libya CE%sT 1990 May 4
  446 # The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
  447 # the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors.
  448 2:00 - EET 1996 Sep 30
  449 1:00 - CET 1997 Apr 4
  450 1:00 1:00 CEST 1997 Oct 4
  451 2:00 - EET
  452
  453 # Madagascar
  454 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  455 Zone Indian/Antananarivo 3:10:04 - LMT 1911 Jul
  456 3:00 - EAT 1954 Feb 27 23:00s
  457 3:00 1:00 EAST 1954 May 29 23:00s
  458 3:00 - EAT
  459
  460 # Malawi
  461 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  462 Zone Africa/Blantyre 2:20:00 - LMT 1903 Mar
  463 2:00 - CAT
  464
  465 # Mali
  466 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  467 Zone Africa/Bamako -0:32:00 - LMT 1912
  468 0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26
  469 -1:00 - WAT 1960 Jun 20
  470 0:00 - GMT
  471
  472 # Mauritania
  473 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  474 Zone Africa/Nouakchott -1:03:48 - LMT 1912
  475 0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26
  476 -1:00 - WAT 1960 Nov 28
  477 0:00 - GMT
  478
  479 # Mauritius
  480
  481 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-06-25):
  482 # Mauritius plans to observe DST from 2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31 on a trial
  483 # basis....
  484 # It seems that Mauritius observed daylight saving time from 1982-10-10 to
  485 # 1983-03-20 as well, but that was not successful....
  486 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html
  487
  488 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-25):
  489 # http://economicdevelopment.gov.mu/portal/site/Mainhomepage/menuitem.a42b24128104d9845dabddd154508a0c/?content_id=0a7cee8b5d69a110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
  490
  491 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-06-30):
  492 # The www.timeanddate.com article cited by Steffen Thorsen notes that "A
  493 # final decision has yet to be made on the times that daylight saving
  494 # would begin and end on these dates." As a place holder, use midnight.
  495
  496 # From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
  497 # Follow Thorsen on DST in 1982/1983, instead of Shanks & Pottenger.
  498
  499 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
  500 # According to
  501 # <a href="http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216">
  502 # http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
  503 # </a>
  504 # (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
  505 # than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31). The new start
  506 # date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
  507 # given, but it is probably at either 2 or 3 wall clock time).
  508 #
  509 # A little strange though, since the article says that they moved the date
  510 # to align itself with Europe and USA which also change time on that date,
  511 # but that means they have not paid attention to what happened in
  512 # USA/Canada last year (DST ends first Sunday in November). I also wonder
  513 # why that they end on a Friday, instead of aligning with Europe which
  514 # changes two days later.
  515
  516 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):
  517 # Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving
  518 # time: Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
  519 # published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
  520 #
  521 # I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
  522 # de l'heure d'ete" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
  523 # and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one.
  524 # ...
  525 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html">
  526 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
  527 # </a>
  528
  529 # From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
  530 # The Government of Mauritius weblink
  531 # <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD">
  532 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
  533 # </a>
  534 # Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
  535 #
  536 # 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
  537 # of the Time Bill which provides for the introduction of summer time in
  538 # Mauritius. The summer time period which will be of one hour ahead of
  539 # the standard time, will be aligned with that in Europe and the United
  540 # States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
  541 # last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
  542 # the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
  543 # year 2008 - 2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
  544 # and end on 29 March 2009.
  545
  546 # From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
  547 # THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
  548 # beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
  549 # morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
  550 # <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf">
  551 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
  552 # </a>
  553
  554 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
  555 # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
  556 # DST the coming summer...
  557 #
  558 # Some sources, in French:
  559 # <a href="http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB">
  560 # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
  561 # </a>
  562 # <a href="http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-">
  563 # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
  564 # </a>
  565 #
  566 # Our wrap-up:
  567 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html">
  568 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
  569 # </a>
  570
  571 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
  572 # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
  573 # "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour
  574 # at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."
  575
  576 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  577 Rule Mauritius 1982 only - Oct 10 0:00 1:00 S
  578 Rule Mauritius 1983 only - Mar 21 0:00 0 -
  579 Rule Mauritius 2008 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 S
  580 Rule Mauritius 2009 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
  581 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  582 Zone Indian/Mauritius 3:50:00 - LMT 1907 # Port Louis
  583 4:00 Mauritius MU%sT # Mauritius Time
  584 # Agalega Is, Rodriguez
  585 # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
  586
  587 # Mayotte
  588 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  589 Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
  590 3:00 - EAT
  591
  592 # Morocco
  593 # See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
  594
  595 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
  596 # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
  597 # 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.
  598 #
  599 # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
  600 # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
  601 # Communication Minister and Gov ernment Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
  602 #
  603 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html">
  604 # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
  605 # </a>
  606 # OR
  607 # <a href="http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html">
  608 # http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
  609 # </a>
  610
  611 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
  612 # The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe Presse:
  613 # <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view">
  614 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
  615 # </a>
  616 #
  617 # Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
  618 # spokesman.
  619
  620 # From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
  621 # According to this article:
  622 # <a href="http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html">
  623 # http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
  624 # </a>
  625 # (and republished here:
  626 # <a href="http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html">
  627 # http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html
  628 # </a>
  629 # )
  630 # the changes occurs at midnight:
  631 #
  632 # saturday night may 31st at midnight (which in french is to be
  633 # intrepreted as the night between saturday and sunday)
  634 # sunday night the 28th at midnight
  635 #
  636 # Seeing that the 28th is monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
  637 # the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between sunday and
  638 # monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
  639 # june1st to sept 27th.
  640 #
  641 # The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
  642 # published on the web.
  643 #
  644 # It's also confirmed here:
  645 # <a href="http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm">
  646 # http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
  647 # </a>
  648 # on a government portal as being between june 1st and sept 27th (not yet
  649 # posted in english).
  650 #
  651 # The following google query will generate many relevant hits:
  652 # <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search">
  653 # http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
  654 # </a>
  655
  656 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
  657 # Is Western Sahara (part which administrated by Morocco) going to follow
  658 # Morocco DST changes? Any information? What about other part of
  659 # Western Sahara - under administration of POLISARIO Front (also named
  660 # SADR Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic)?
  661
  662 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-09):
  663 # XXX--guess that it is only Morocco for now; guess only 2008 for now.
  664
  665 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
  666 # Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31
  667 # and September 1. They originally planned to observe DST to near the end
  668 # of September:
  669 #
  670 # One article about it (in French):
  671 # <a href="http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default">
  672 # http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
  673 # </a>
  674 #
  675 # We have some further details posted here:
  676 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html">
  677 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
  678 # </a>
  679
  680 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
  681 # Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
  682 # to many sources, such as
  683 # <a href="http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html">
  684 # http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
  685 # </a>
  686 # <a href="http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312">
  687 # http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
  688 # </a>
  689 # (French)
  690 #
  691 # Our summary:
  692 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html">
  693 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
  694 # </a>
  695
  696 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
  697 # Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
  698 # Ministere de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
  699 #
  700 # Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 june 1967)
  701 # concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
  702 # Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
  703 # advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
  704 #
  705 # <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf">
  706 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
  707 # </a>
  708 #
  709 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html">
  710 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
  711 # </a>
  712
  713 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
  714 # Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
  715 # of Public Sectors has announced that Morocco will have DST from
  716 # 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
  717 #
  718 # Example:
  719 # <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html">
  720 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
  721 # </a>
  722 # (French)
  723 # Our page:
  724 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html">
  725 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
  726 # </a>
  727
  728 # From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
  729 # ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
  730 # The 3rd april 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd april 1:00:00
  731 # The 31th july 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31th July 00:00:00
  732 # ...Official links of change in morocco
  733 # The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
  734 # I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
  735 # +212.537.71.84.00
  736 # <a href="http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/">
  737 # http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
  738 # </a>
  739 # They said that
  740 # <a href="http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view">
  741 # http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
  742 # </a>
  743 # is the official publication to look at.
  744 # They said that the decision was already taken.
  745 #
  746 # More articles in the press
  747 # <a href="http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev">
  748 # http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev
  749 # </a>
  750 # e.html
  751 # <a href="http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923">
  752 # http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
  753 # </a>
  754 # <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim">
  755 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
  756 # anche-prochain-5538.html
  757 # </a>
  758
  759 # From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
  760 # They have it written in English here:
  761 # <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view">
  762 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
  763 # </a>
  764 #
  765 # It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
  766 # 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
  767 # wall clock time (i.e. 11pm UTC), but that's what I would assume. It has
  768 # also been like that in the past.
  769
  770 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09):
  771 # According to Infom&eacute;diaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
  772 # on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure l&eacute;gale:
  773 # Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'&eacute;t&eacute;
  774 # <a href="http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9">
  775 # http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9
  776 # </a>
  777 # Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on
  778 # the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on
  779 # last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)
  780 # except the month of Ramadan.
  781 # or (brief)
  782 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html">
  783 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html
  784 # </a>
  785
  786 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):
  787 # The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in
  788 # effect every year. It gives 03H00 as the "fall back" time of day;
  789 # it lacks a "spring forward" time of day; assume 2:00 XXX.
  790 # Wait on specifying the Ramadan exception for details about
  791 # start date, start time of day, end date, and end time of day XXX.
  792
  793 # From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):
  794 # Seen Morocco change again:
  795 # <a href="http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php">
  796 # http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php
  797 # </a>
  798 # "...&agrave; partir du dernier dimance d'avril et non fins mars,
  799 # comme annonc&eacute; pr&eacute;c&eacute;demment."
  800
  801 # From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):
  802 # The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government:
  803 # <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288">
  804 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French]
  805 # </a>
  806 #
  807 # Google translation, lightly edited:
  808 # Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)
  809 # Pursuant to Decree No. 2-12-126 issued on 26 Jumada (I) 1433 (April 18,
  810 # 2012) and in accordance with the order of Mr. President of the
  811 # Government No. 3-47-12 issued on 24 Sha'ban (11 July 2012), the Ministry
  812 # of Public Service and Administration Modernization announces the return
  813 # of the legal time of the Kingdom (GMT) from Friday, July 20, 2012 until
  814 # Monday, August 20, 2012. So the time will be delayed by 60 minutes from
  815 # 3:00 am Friday, July 20, 2012 and will again be advanced by 60 minutes
  816 # August 20, 2012 from 2:00 am.
  817
  818 # RULE NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  819
  820 Rule Morocco 1939 only - Sep 12 0:00 1:00 S
  821 Rule Morocco 1939 only - Nov 19 0:00 0 -
  822 Rule Morocco 1940 only - Feb 25 0:00 1:00 S
  823 Rule Morocco 1945 only - Nov 18 0:00 0 -
  824 Rule Morocco 1950 only - Jun 11 0:00 1:00 S
  825 Rule Morocco 1950 only - Oct 29 0:00 0 -
  826 Rule Morocco 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S
  827 Rule Morocco 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
  828 Rule Morocco 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S
  829 Rule Morocco 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
  830 Rule Morocco 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
  831 Rule Morocco 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
  832 Rule Morocco 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
  833 Rule Morocco 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
  834 Rule Morocco 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -
  835 Rule Morocco 2008 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
  836 Rule Morocco 2008 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
  837 Rule Morocco 2009 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
  838 Rule Morocco 2009 only - Aug 21 0:00 0 -
  839 Rule Morocco 2010 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
  840 Rule Morocco 2010 only - Aug 8 0:00 0 -
  841 Rule Morocco 2011 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
  842 Rule Morocco 2011 only - Jul 31 0 0 -
  843 Rule Morocco 2012 max - Apr lastSun 2:00 1:00 S
  844 Rule Morocco 2012 max - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
  845 Rule Morocco 2012 only - Jul 20 3:00 0 -
  846 Rule Morocco 2012 only - Aug 20 2:00 1:00 S
  847
  848 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  849 Zone Africa/Casablanca -0:30:20 - LMT 1913 Oct 26
  850 0:00 Morocco WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
  851 1:00 - CET 1986
  852 0:00 Morocco WE%sT
  853 # Western Sahara
  854 Zone Africa/El_Aaiun -0:52:48 - LMT 1934 Jan
  855 -1:00 - WAT 1976 Apr 14
  856 0:00 - WET
  857
  858 # Mozambique
  859 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  860 Zone Africa/Maputo 2:10:20 - LMT 1903 Mar
  861 2:00 - CAT
  862
  863 # Namibia
  864 # The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger.
  865 # Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA.
  866
  867 # From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in
  868 # <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>:
  869 # While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
  870 # settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
  871 # rises and sets earlier compared to other regions. Chief of
  872 # Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of
  873 # the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest
  874 # of the country.
  875 #
  876 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-31):
  877 # Apparently the Caprivi Strip informally observes Botswana time, but
  878 # we have no details. In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone.
  879
  880 # RULE NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  881 Rule Namibia 1994 max - Sep Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
  882 Rule Namibia 1995 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
  883 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  884 Zone Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 - LMT 1892 Feb 8
  885 1:30 - SWAT 1903 Mar # SW Africa Time
  886 2:00 - SAST 1942 Sep 20 2:00
  887 2:00 1:00 SAST 1943 Mar 21 2:00
  888 2:00 - SAST 1990 Mar 21 # independence
  889 2:00 - CAT 1994 Apr 3
  890 1:00 Namibia WA%sT
  891
  892 # Niger
  893 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  894 Zone Africa/Niamey 0:08:28 - LMT 1912
  895 -1:00 - WAT 1934 Feb 26
  896 0:00 - GMT 1960
  897 1:00 - WAT
  898
  899 # Nigeria
  900 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  901 Zone Africa/Lagos 0:13:36 - LMT 1919 Sep
  902 1:00 - WAT
  903
  904 # Reunion
  905 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  906 Zone Indian/Reunion 3:41:52 - LMT 1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
  907 4:00 - RET # Reunion Time
  908 #
  909 # Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
  910 # The following information about them is taken from
  911 # Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French;
  912 # no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
  913 # We have no info about their time zone histories.
  914 #
  915 # Bassas da India - uninhabited
  916 # Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
  917 # Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
  918 # Juan de Nova - uninhabited
  919 # Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
  920
  921 # Rwanda
  922 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  923 Zone Africa/Kigali 2:00:16 - LMT 1935 Jun
  924 2:00 - CAT
  925
  926 # St Helena
  927 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  928 Zone Atlantic/St_Helena -0:22:48 - LMT 1890 # Jamestown
  929 -0:22:48 - JMT 1951 # Jamestown Mean Time
  930 0:00 - GMT
  931 # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
  932 # Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
  933 # Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA
  934 # Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
  935 # on GMT, says the CIA
  936 # Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT
  937
  938 # Sao Tome and Principe
  939 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  940 Zone Africa/Sao_Tome 0:26:56 - LMT 1884
  941 -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 # Lisbon Mean Time
  942 0:00 - GMT
  943
  944 # Senegal
  945 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  946 Zone Africa/Dakar -1:09:44 - LMT 1912
  947 -1:00 - WAT 1941 Jun
  948 0:00 - GMT
  949
  950 # Seychelles
  951 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  952 Zone Indian/Mahe 3:41:48 - LMT 1906 Jun # Victoria
  953 4:00 - SCT # Seychelles Time
  954 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
  955 # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
  956 # Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
  957 # in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976. We don't know
  958 # whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
  959 # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
  960
  961 # Sierra Leone
  962 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  963 # Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
  964 Rule SL 1935 1942 - Jun 1 0:00 0:40 SLST
  965 Rule SL 1935 1942 - Oct 1 0:00 0 WAT
  966 Rule SL 1957 1962 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 SLST
  967 Rule SL 1957 1962 - Sep 1 0:00 0 GMT
  968 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  969 Zone Africa/Freetown -0:53:00 - LMT 1882
  970 -0:53:00 - FMT 1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time
  971 -1:00 SL %s 1957
  972 0:00 SL %s
  973
  974 # Somalia
  975 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  976 Zone Africa/Mogadishu 3:01:28 - LMT 1893 Nov
  977 3:00 - EAT 1931
  978 2:30 - BEAT 1957
  979 3:00 - EAT
  980
  981 # South Africa
  982 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  983 Rule SA 1942 1943 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 -
  984 Rule SA 1943 1944 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
  985 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  986 Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 - LMT 1892 Feb 8
  987 1:30 - SAST 1903 Mar
  988 2:00 SA SAST
  989 # Marion and Prince Edward Is
  990 # scientific station since 1947
  991 # no information
  992
  993 # Sudan
  994 #
  995 # From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html">
  996 # Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13)
  997 # </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
  998 # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
  999 # Saturday.... This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
  1000 # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
  1001 #
  1002 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  1003 Rule Sudan 1970 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
  1004 Rule Sudan 1970 1985 - Oct 15 0:00 0 -
  1005 Rule Sudan 1971 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 S
  1006 Rule Sudan 1972 1985 - Apr lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
  1007 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1008 Zone Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 - LMT 1931
  1009 2:00 Sudan CA%sT 2000 Jan 15 12:00
  1010 3:00 - EAT
  1011
  1012 # South Sudan
  1013 Zone Africa/Juba 2:06:24 - LMT 1931
  1014 2:00 Sudan CA%sT 2000 Jan 15 12:00
  1015 3:00 - EAT
  1016
  1017 # Swaziland
  1018 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1019 Zone Africa/Mbabane 2:04:24 - LMT 1903 Mar
  1020 2:00 - SAST
  1021
  1022 # Tanzania
  1023 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1024 Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 - LMT 1931
  1025 3:00 - EAT 1948
  1026 2:45 - BEAUT 1961
  1027 3:00 - EAT
  1028
  1029 # Togo
  1030 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1031 Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893
  1032 0:00 - GMT
  1033
  1034 # Tunisia
  1035
  1036 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
  1037 # My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
  1038 # this time in Tunisia. According to Yahoo France News
  1039 # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
  1040 # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
  1041 # one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1. Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
  1042 # UTC+2 instead of UTC+1. The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
  1043 # Saturday." (My translation)
  1044 #
  1045 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
  1046 # LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ...
  1047 # <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html>
  1048 # ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
  1049 # 1h standard time.
  1050 #
  1051 # From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28):
  1052 # The daylight saving time will be the same each year:
  1053 # Beginning : the last Sunday of March at 02:00
  1054 # Ending : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ...
  1055 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50
  1056
  1057 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
  1058 # According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
  1059 # (Arabic)
  1060 # <a href="http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546">
  1061 # http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
  1062 # </a>
  1063 # <a href="http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp">
  1064 # http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
  1065 # </a>
  1066 #
  1067 # We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
  1068 # We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
  1069 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html">
  1070 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
  1071 # </a>
  1072
  1073 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
  1074 # Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
  1075 #
  1076 # Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
  1077 #
  1078 # (in English)
  1079 # <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157">
  1080 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
  1081 # </a>
  1082 #
  1083 # (in Arabic)
  1084 # <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1">
  1085 # http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
  1086 # </a>
  1087
  1088 # From Arthur David Olson (2009--3-18):
  1089 # The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is due to the fact
  1090 # that the fasting month of ramadan coincides with the period concerned by summer time.
  1091 # Therefore, the standard time will be kept unchanged the whole year long."
  1092 # So foregoing DST seems to be an exception (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).
  1093
  1094 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
  1095 # According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
  1096 #
  1097 # (translation):
  1098 # "The Tunisian government has decided to abandon DST, which was scheduled on
  1099 # Sunday...
  1100 # Tunisian authorities had suspended the DST for the first time last year also
  1101 # coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
  1102 #
  1103 # (in Arabic)
  1104 # <a href="http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1">
  1105 # http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
  1106 # <a href="http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036">
  1107 # http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
  1108 # or
  1109 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html">
  1110 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
  1111
  1112 # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
  1113 Rule Tunisia 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
  1114 Rule Tunisia 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
  1115 Rule Tunisia 1940 only - Feb 25 23:00s 1:00 S
  1116 Rule Tunisia 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 0 -
  1117 Rule Tunisia 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 1:00 S
  1118 Rule Tunisia 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
  1119 Rule Tunisia 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S
  1120 Rule Tunisia 1943 only - Apr 17 2:00 0 -
  1121 Rule Tunisia 1943 only - Apr 25 2:00 1:00 S
  1122 Rule Tunisia 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
  1123 Rule Tunisia 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00 1:00 S
  1124 Rule Tunisia 1944 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
  1125 Rule Tunisia 1945 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 -
  1126 Rule Tunisia 1977 only - Apr 30 0:00s 1:00 S
  1127 Rule Tunisia 1977 only - Sep 24 0:00s 0 -
  1128 Rule Tunisia 1978 only - May 1 0:00s 1:00 S
  1129 Rule Tunisia 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
  1130 Rule Tunisia 1988 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S
  1131 Rule Tunisia 1988 1990 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
  1132 Rule Tunisia 1989 only - Mar 26 0:00s 1:00 S
  1133 Rule Tunisia 1990 only - May 1 0:00s 1:00 S
  1134 Rule Tunisia 2005 only - May 1 0:00s 1:00 S
  1135 Rule Tunisia 2005 only - Sep 30 1:00s 0 -
  1136 Rule Tunisia 2006 2008 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
  1137 Rule Tunisia 2006 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
  1138
  1139 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
  1140 # more precise 0:09:21.
  1141 # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
  1142 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1143 Zone Africa/Tunis 0:40:44 - LMT 1881 May 12
  1144 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
  1145 1:00 Tunisia CE%sT
  1146
  1147 # Uganda
  1148 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1149 Zone Africa/Kampala 2:09:40 - LMT 1928 Jul
  1150 3:00 - EAT 1930
  1151 2:30 - BEAT 1948
  1152 2:45 - BEAUT 1957
  1153 3:00 - EAT
  1154
  1155 # Zambia
  1156 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1157 Zone Africa/Lusaka 1:53:08 - LMT 1903 Mar
  1158 2:00 - CAT
  1159
  1160 # Zimbabwe
  1161 # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
  1162 Zone Africa/Harare 2:04:12 - LMT 1903 Mar
  1163 2:00 - CAT
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